Sometimes it happens that the body has already developed a pathology, and the person does not even suspect about it. Impaired glucose tolerance is the case.
The patient still does not feel sick, does not feel any symptoms, but halfway to such a serious illness as diabetes mellitus. What is it?
Causes of disease
IGT (impaired glucose tolerance) has its own code according to ICD 10 - R 73.0, but is not an independent disease. This pathology is a frequent companion of obesity and one of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. A disorder is characterized by a change in the amount of sugar in the blood plasma, which exceeds the permissible values, but is not yet sufficient for hyperglycemia.
This is due to the failure of the absorption of glucose into the cells of the organs due to insufficient receptivity of the cellular insulin receptors.
This condition is also called prediabetes and, if left untreated, a person with IGT will sooner or later be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Violation is found at any age, even in children and in most patients, different degrees of obesity were recorded. Overweight is often accompanied by a decrease in the sensitivity of cell receptors to insulin.
In addition, the IGT can trigger the following factors:
- Low physical activity. Passive lifestyle in combination with obesity leads to impaired blood circulation, which, in turn, causes problems with the heart and vascular system, and affects carbohydrate metabolism.
- Treatment with hormonal drugs. Such drugs lead to a decrease in the cellular response to insulin.
- Genetic predisposition. A mutated gene affects receptor sensitivity or hormone functionality. Such a gene is inherited, this explains the detection of a violation of tolerance in childhood. Thus, if the parents have problems with carbohydrate metabolism, then the child has a high risk of developing IGT.
It is necessary to undergo a blood test for tolerance in such cases:
- pregnancy is a large fetus;
- the birth of a large or stillborn child in previous pregnancies;
- taking diuretics;
- pancreatic pathology;
- low content in blood plasma of lipoproteins;
- the presence of Cushing's syndrome;
- people over 45-50 years old;
- high triglyceride levels;
- bouts of hypoglycemia.
Symptoms of pathology
Diagnosis of pathology is difficult due to the absence of pronounced symptoms. IGT is more often detected by the results of a blood test during a medical examination for another disease.
In some cases, when the pathological condition progresses, patients pay attention to such manifestations:
- appetite increases significantly, especially at night;
- strong thirst appears and dries up in the mouth;
- frequency and amount of urination increases;
- migraine attacks occur;
- dizzy after eating, fever;
- decreased performance due to fatigue, there is a weakness;
- digestion is broken.
As a result of the fact that patients do not pay attention to such signs and are in no hurry to consult a doctor, the ability to correct endocrine disorders in the early stages is sharply reduced. But the likelihood of developing incurable diabetes, on the contrary, increases.
Lack of timely treatment pathology continues to progress. Glucose, accumulating in the plasma, begins to affect the composition of the blood, increasing its acidity.
At the same time, as a result of the interaction of sugar with blood components, its density changes. This leads to impaired blood circulation, resulting in the development of diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism do not pass without a trace for other systems of the body. Kidneys, liver, digestive organs are damaged. Well, the final uncontrollable impaired glucose tolerance is diabetes.
If you suspect NTG, the patient is sent to a consultation with an endocrinologist. The specialist collects information about the patient's lifestyle and habits, clarifies complaints, the presence of concomitant diseases, as well as cases of endocrine disorders among relatives.
The next step is to assign the tests:
- blood biochemistry;
- general clinical blood examination;
- urine analysis for uric acid, sugar and cholesterol.
The main diagnostic test is the tolerance test.
Before the test, you need to perform a number of conditions:
- the last meal before donating blood should be 8-10 hours before the examination;
- nervous and physical overvoltage should be avoided;
- Do not drink alcohol for three days before the test;
- no smoking day on study day;
- You can not donate blood in case of viral and catarrhal diseases or after a recent surgery.
The test is carried out as follows:
- blood sampling for the test is taken on an empty stomach;
- the patient is given a glucose solution to drink or an intravenous solution is administered;
- after 1-1.5 hours the blood test is repeated.
The violation is confirmed with the following indicators of glucose:
- blood taken on an empty stomach - more than 5.5 and less than 6 mmol / l;
- blood taken 1.5 hours after the carbohydrate load is more than 7.5 and less than 11.2 mmol / l.
Treatment of IGT
What to do if NTG is confirmed?
Typically, clinical recommendations are as follows:
- regularly monitor blood sugar;
- monitor blood pressure indicators;
- increase physical activity;
- follow a diet, seeking weight loss.
Additionally, drugs can be prescribed to help reduce appetite and accelerate the breakdown of fat cells.
The importance of proper nutrition
Adhering to the principles of proper nutrition is useful even for a completely healthy person, and in a patient with impaired carbohydrate metabolism, diet change is the main point of the treatment process and dieting should become a way of life.
The rules of dietary intake are as follows:
- Fractional meal. There is a need more often, at least 5 times a day and in small portions. Last snack should be a couple of hours before bedtime.
- Drink daily from 1.5 to 2 liters of pure water. It helps to thin the blood, reduce swelling and speed up metabolism.
- Wheat products, as well as desserts with cream, sweets and sweets are excluded from consumption.
- Limit consumption of starchy vegetables and alcoholic beverages to a minimum.
- Increase the amount of vegetables rich in fiber. Legumes, greens and unsweetened fruits are also allowed.
- Reduce the intake of salt and spices.
- To replace sugar with natural sweeteners, honey is allowed in limited quantities.
- Avoid the menu dishes and products with a high percentage of fat.
- Low-fat dairy and dairy products, fish and lean meat are allowed.
- Grain products should be from whole grain or rye flour, or with the addition of bran.
- From cereals prefer pearl barley, buckwheat, brown rice.
- Significantly reduce high-carb pasta, semolina, oatmeal, refined rice.
Avoid fasting and overeating, as well as low-calorie meals. Daily calorie intake should be in the range of 1600-2000 kcal, where complex carbohydrates account for 50%, fats about 30% and 20% for protein foods. If there are kidney diseases, then the amount of proteins decreases.
Another important treatment point is physical activity. To reduce weight, you need to provoke an intense expenditure of energy, in addition, it will help reduce sugar levels.
Regular exercise speeds up metabolic processes, improves blood circulation, strengthens the vascular walls and heart muscle. This prevents the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease.
The main direction of physical activity should be aerobic exercise. They lead to an increase in heart rate, resulting in accelerated splitting of fat cells.
For people suffering from hypertension and pathologies of the cardiovascular system, low-intensity occupations are more suitable. Slow walks, swimming, simple exercises, that is, everything that does not lead to an increase in pressure and the appearance of shortness of breath or pain in the heart.
For healthy people, activities need to be chosen more intensive. Run, jumping rope, bike, skating or skiing, dancing, team sports will do. A set of physical exercises should be designed in such a way that most of the workout comes to aerobic exercise.
The main condition is the regularity of classes. It is better to set aside 30–60 minutes for sports every day than to do two or three hours once a week.
It is important to monitor well-being. The appearance of dizziness, nausea, pain, signs of hypertension should be a signal to reduce the intensity of the load.
In the absence of results from diet and sports, it is recommended drug treatment.
Such drugs may be prescribed:
- Glucophage - lowers the concentration of sugar and prevents the absorption of carbohydrates, gives an excellent effect in combination with dietary nutrition;
- Metformin - reduces appetite and sugar levels, inhibits the absorption of carbohydrates and insulin production;
- Acarbose - lowers glucose;
- Siofor - affects insulin production and sugar concentration, slows down the breakdown of carbohydrate compounds
If necessary, drugs are prescribed to normalize blood pressure and restore heart function.
Prevention of pre-diabetes:
- visit a doctor when the first symptoms of the development of the pathology appear;
- every six months to take a test study on glucose tolerance;
- in the presence of polycystic ovaries and when gestational diabetes is detected, blood sugar testing should be carried out regularly;
- eliminate alcohol and smoking;
- follow the rules of dietary nutrition;
- to allocate time for regular physical activities;
- monitor your weight, if necessary, get rid of extra pounds;
- do not self-medicate - all drugs should be taken only on prescription.
Video material about prediabetes and how to treat it:
Changes that have occurred under the influence of carbohydrate metabolism disorders with the timely start of treatment and compliance with all doctor's prescriptions are quite amenable to correction. Otherwise, the risk of developing diabetes is greatly increased.