In a healthy person, the rate of sugar in the urine should be up to 2.8 mmol. If its amount is increased and the indicators will be more than 3%, this indicates a violation in the functioning of the tubules of the kidneys. This means that glucose remains in the urine, so it is important to know how to reduce sugar in biological fluids.
The name of such a condition when glucose was detected in urine is glycosuria. You can determine its presence at home, using test strips or in the laboratory. But in order to make an accurate diagnosis and identify the cause of urine glucose increase, it is necessary to pass an analysis of urine for sugar.
But why can increase the level of glucose in the blood and urine. What are the symptoms of this condition and how can the indicators be normalized?
Causes and symptoms
To find out the reasons for the increase in sugar in urine, it is important to understand what a renal threshold is. Glucosuria is detected when it rises. Normally, in healthy adults, the renal threshold does not exceed 10 mmol / l, in a child - 12.65 mmol / l, and in an elderly person its indicators are lowered.
With kidney disease, characterized by the defeat of their tubules, returning sugar into the blood from the primary urine, the renal threshold is reduced. Here is the cause of sugar in the urine.
In diabetes (kidney), the amount of sugar in the blood can remain normal or reduced, but in the urine a lot. In medicine, this condition is referred to as glycosuria. It can appear when the sugar content in the urine is too high and if the blood sugar threshold is not exceeded even against the background of the development of hypoglycemia.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type one is the leading cause of an increase in urine glucose levels. Symptoms of development of the disease - a high concentration of glucose in the urine and a reduced amount of sugar in the blood.
Glucose enters the bloodstream through the tubules of the kidneys through the phosphating effect of the hexokinase enzyme on it. In type 1 diabetes, the enzyme is activated by hormone-insulin and the renal threshold is reduced in the patient. In patients with increased sclerotic processes in the kidneys and sugar in the urine is not detected, and a blood test shows the presence of hyperglycemia.
But often the reason why high sugar in urine is caused is temporary physiological glucosuria. There are 3 types of status:
- Alimentary. Characterized by a single increase in the level of sugar in urine, for example, after the abuse of carbohydrate foods.
- Pathological. In the urine sugar increases when its performance is overestimated in the blood.
- Emotional. Glycosuria occurs as a result of strong experiences and stress.
If sugar is present in the urine, the causes of this condition can be found in the presence of severe disorders in the functioning of the kidneys, Cushing syndrome, hyperthyroidism, encephalitis, pancreatitis, kidney inflammation, epilepsy and malfunction of the brain. Other factors affecting the level of sugar in the urine are traumatic brain injury, which causes irritation of the nervous system, Girke's disease, and feverish states.
Sometimes glucosuria develops when chemicals are poisoned (chloroform, morphine, phosphorus). Other provocative factors are muscle overload, taking sedatives and analgesics, carbohydrate food abuse, hormone treatment.
Why does sugar increase in a child? If there is sugar in the urine, the rate in children should not exceed 2.8 mmol / l. When a child gets glucose in urine after a meal that contains fast carbohydrates, this indicator says that parents need to change the rules of baby food and remove healthy foods from the diet. But in children, the appearance of sugar in the urine, as in adults, can be caused by various diseases (diabetes, brain pathologies, encephalitis).
How is glycosuria? Its symptoms most often appear in type 1 diabetes. They are accompanied by an increase in blood glucose, which is called glycemia.
The clinical picture characteristic of glycosuria and hyperglycemia:
- increased fatigue;
- unreasonable increase or decrease in weight;
- dry mouth;
- frequent urinary tract infections;
- low physical activity.
If measures to reduce sugar in diabetics are not taken in a timely manner, then the course of the disease will be complicated. With the running form of the disease, a urine sugar analysis shows the presence of ketone bodies (acetone).
Symptoms of a severe form of chronic hyperglycemia are polyuria and impaired consciousness.
How to identify glucosuria at home?
Are there any methods to quickly detect glucosuria in the absence of clinical conditions? The presence of sugar in the urine can be determined independently using test strips.
The measurement is based on the glucose oxidase method. In the reactive composition of the indicator are enzymes peroxidase and glucose oxidase.
Test strips are made in three types of indicator strips (25, 50, 100). The most convenient is set number 50, and the number of available strips in it lasts for 30 days.
The test strip is a reagent applied to a plastic substrate that is ready for use. When a reaction occurs, the yellow indicator, located 1 mm from the edge, is colored in a specific color. The results are interpreted as follows: if there is no glucose in the urine, this indicates that the answer is negative, and the color of the test strip remains unchanged.
And what does the indicator mean when the color of the strip changes from green to dark blue? This indicates a positive result. The highest concentration of glucose in urine, determined by test strips, is 112 mol / l.
In order for the urine sugar test to be reliable, it is important to know how to properly use test strips:
- For the study it is recommended to take 30 ml of morning urine collected max. 2 hours before the analysis. If the liquid has been stored longer, there is no point in referring it to the laboratory, because the results will be unreliable.
- Before the fence it is necessary to conduct all hygiene procedures
- The test strip removed from the tube should be used for 60 minutes.
- Do not touch the indicator element.
- The strip is immersed in a urine test tube for 2 seconds, then it is placed on a clean, flat surface.
The results will be known in 1-2 minutes after the study, for their interpretation the color obtained is compared with the table placed on the canister.
Clinical studies that determine the sugar in urine, their decoding
There are 2 main types of urine collection for the subsequent identification of sugar in it - morning and daily. The most informative is considered the daily study.
The algorithm for collecting urine is not complicated. During the day, the liquid is collected in a large container. The first morning urine is drained. The collected bioametaril stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of up to 8 degrees.
A day later, the liquid in the jar is mixed and poured into a small vessel with a volume of 100-200 ml. In order for the urine test for sugar to give reliable results, it is important to know how to pass and collect the bio-material correctly.
Liquid collection containers should be dry and clean. Urine intended for general research is allowed to be stored for up to 1.5 hours. On the container, parameters such as weight, height and amount of urine released per day in milliliters are indicated.
If the attending physician prescribes the taking of urine for sugar collected in the morning, then the collection algorithm is as follows: 30-40 ml of the liquid separated in the morning are collected in a small container. The biomaterial is taken to the laboratory no later than 6 hours after collection.
In a healthy person, diuresis per day is 1200-1500 ml. If the amount is exceeded, polyuria is diagnosed.
What does it mean? When the analysis shows the excess of the allowable amount of urine, additional research is carried out. The appearance of water load is typical for people with diabetes mellitus of the first or second type.
If the patient's health is normal, his urine has a straw yellow color. With a saturated shade, additional analyzes are performed to find out the cause of water retention in the tissues. In the urine with a normal indicator of sugar (up to 0.02%) should not contain acetone, phosphates and other substances.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus or its insulin-dependent form, the kidneys are often affected. Therefore, creatinine is additionally measured in patients. The substance is the final product of the vital activity of the organism, obtained by biochemical reactions associated with energy processes.
Creatinine is an important indication that reflects the level of the kidneys, liver, and other systems and organs. The concentration of the substance is determined by biochemical blood tests and urine analysis for sugar.
The rules for collecting urine are similar to those described above. The results of the analyzes reflect the level of the substance and the amount of creatinine excreted from the body in 24 hours.
Creatinine is determined by gender and age. The daily rate of substance in men in the urine is up to 2000 mg or up to 17.7 mmol per liter, for women - 600–1800 mg or 5.3–15.9 mmol / l.
Normal values of daily creatinine in the urine per 1 kg of weight, depending on age:
- 1-4 days are calculated individually according to a special formula;
- up to one year - 71-177 μmol;
- 1-14 years - 71-194 micromole;
- Till 18 years - 71-265 micromole.
Sugar in the urine with diabetes, as well as creatinine does not always increase. But if the result of the analysis is positive - this indicates kidney damage. This complication may be called diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, it is important to know how to lower sugar in the urine, which will help reduce the amount of creatinine and, therefore, stop the progression of nephropathy.
How to remove sugar from urine?
A high level of glucose in the blood and urine is dangerous due to the development of many complications. Therefore, those who have been detected glycosuria, you need to know about the methods used in the removal of sugar from biological fluids.
How to get rid of sugar in the urine? Reduce sugar in the urine will help proper nutrition. From the diet it is necessary to remove the food, rich in fast carbohydrates, fried, spicy and fatty. It is recommended to include in the daily menu products that remove sugar from the body - vegetables, sour fruits, cereals, greens, dietary meats and fish.
Those who have high sugar in the urine, it is necessary to completely abandon alcohol, sugary drinks, juices and harmful habits. How to reduce sugar in the urine with the help of physical exertion? Sport is very useful for diabetics, because it normalizes metabolic processes, and also it is able to reduce weight.
More sugar in the urine is removed using hypoglycemic drugs and insulin. The choice of antidiabetic drugs is quite extensive, so if a sugar is detected in the urine, only the attending physician should prescribe treatment.
How to lower blood sugar quickly by folk remedies? In order to improve the health of a person with glucosuria and hyperglycemia, it is better to use alternative medicine recipes that lower the level of glucose in the body.
If traces of sugar in the urine were identified use:
- herbal decoctions (nettle, dandelion, stevia);
- oat seed
An expert in the video in this article will tell you about the causes, symptoms and treatment of glycosuria.