Atherosclerosis, which is inextricably linked with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques inside arteries / vessels, is one of the most common pathologies of modern times. Their increase leads to serious complications.
Atherosclerotic plaques are an accumulation of cholesterol endothelial cells, which are located on the inner walls of the vessels responsible for the elasticity of these. As the disease progresses, fatty alcohol is mixed with calcium salts, which leads to compaction of tumors.
When plaques become more dense, they look like small bumps that rise above the surface of the wall. Lack of treatment leads to overlap of the vascular lumen, the walls are deformed. In most cases, plaques are formed in the aorta of the abdominal cavity, vessels of the lower extremities, coronary arteries.
The structure and density of the neoplasm are due to the stage of atherosclerosis. Consider the speed with which atherosclerotic plaques form, how to clear blood vessels?
Stages and types of atherosclerotic plaques
Against the background of atherosclerosis, the “soaking” of blood vessel walls with fats and cholesterol is observed. As a result of this process, atherosclerotic plaques form, which narrow the lumen. They can ulcerate, come off, and blood clots form in their place. In the aggregate, this leads to stenosis or complete blockage of the lumen, which is the cause of impaired blood circulation.
The rate of formation is due to many reasons and factors. These include the person's age, chronic diseases, such as diabetes. The period of formation of cholesterol deposits is divided into three stages. In the first stage, plaques form on the walls of the arteries. The rate of increase is slow. Symptoms are not detected. Since the density of plaques is low, it is rather difficult to diagnose the disease at this stage.
In the second stage, cholesterol compaction begins to grow. They partially overlap the lumen of a blood vessel. Diabetics have symptoms of atherosclerosis. Pathological neoplasms are easily diagnosed through hardware methods.
In the third stage, the modified area becomes larger, but the soft structure is maintained. There is a risk of plaque detachment or vessel blockage, which is dangerous. This leads to heart attack, stroke and other negative consequences. The last stage is accompanied by pronounced clinical manifestations.
In medicine, atherosclerotic plaques are classified into types:
- Low stability. Atherosclerotic plaques are a homogeneous structure of a homogeneous nature, which is characterized by density. This type has the most unfavorable prognosis, since neoplasms grow rapidly, which leads to symptomatology of coronary insufficiency. It is difficult to diagnose at an early stage, therefore, diseases in diabetics are often detected already in the presence of complications;
- Medium stability. Plaques are represented by loose seals, covered with a thin fibrous membrane, which is easily torn. With the growth of cholesterol deposits form blood clots. These tumors are successfully treated because they do not contain calcium salts;
- High stability. The shell of cholesterol formations is 90% composed of collagen fibers, which are characterized by high elasticity. Plaques grow slowly, but constantly. Calcium salts accumulate, making it difficult to diagnose pathology due to high density.
The structure of atherosclerotic plaques are homogeneous - a uniform seal that has a flat surface without the inclusion of vascular bundles and heterogeneous - there are many growths, depressions, the structure is loose with the inclusion of vascular bundles, which leads to permanent ulceration.
Why are cholesterol plaques formed?
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial pathology. In other words, the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques is due to the negative impact of a combination of provoking factors. The reasons include a violation of lipid metabolism, hypertension. Against the background of chronically high pressure, the epithelium of the vascular walls exfoliates, which contributes to the rapid penetration of lipids into the vessels.
It is proved that the risk of atherosclerosis in a smoker is three times higher than that of non-smokers. When smoking, gradual endothelial dysfunction is detected, which appears to be a “push” for the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, tobacco smoke increases the risk of blood clots, which provokes early complications of the disease.
Patients suffering from diabetes are at risk of developing atherosclerosis, they have a high probability of complications. In men with diabetes, the risk of cholesterol accumulation in the vessels increases fivefold, and in women at 7. The probability increases if other factors join in - smoking, obesity, high sugar.
Other causes of atherosclerosis:
- Low physical activity.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Overweight / obesity.
- Unbalanced nutrition.
- Hormonal imbalance.
- Age over 55 years.
All risk factors are considered together. They play a role not so much in the development of atherosclerosis, as in its subsequent progression.
The most significant factors in accordance with the WHO include: diabetes, hypertension, smoking, disorders of fat metabolism, obesity.
Clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis
At the initial stage of the lesion of blood vessels, the clinic is absent, since the blood flow is not disturbed or the violation is minor. An increase in fatty seals leads to arterial stenosis. In turn, this provokes the development of certain symptoms. The main part of the symptoms is specific, manifests itself only when a certain part of the body is damaged.
Common signs include soreness. Pain syndrome occurs after physical activity. Pain radiates to different areas of the body, has a pulsating nature. Diabetics also show persistent weakness, which can last for several hours or a couple of days. As plaques increase, there are numb sensations in the affected area.
The rest of the clinic due to the location of the lesion. If cholesterol induction has formed in the aorta of the thoracic region, then patients complain of heart pain. It tends to give in the neck, arm, left shoulder. Pain syndrome does not respond to anesthetic drugs, it can last two days.
The formation of plaques in the vessels of the brain is accompanied by the following clinic:
- Impaired concentration, reduced working capacity, chronic fatigue. Memory deteriorates;
- A diabetic develops a depressive syndrome. Sometimes there is increased aggression, capriciousness, revealed a tendency to hysteria;
- Loss of control behavior. Violations of visual perception, speech functions. Also develop paresis with disorientation in time and space.
With the defeat of the legs, pain is manifested during movement, as a result of which the diabetic constantly limps. As the disease progresses, trophic ulcers occur, which are localized on the feet and / or in the area of the damaged blood vessel. Ulcers grow gradually, covering a large area.
The formation of cholesterol plaques in the abdominal region is clinically detected by a deterioration in appetite, a decrease in body weight. With increasing seals manifested pain in the navel.
Violation of blood flow provokes a partial violation of the functionality of the organs in the abdominal cavity. This leads to problems with bowel movement and increased gas formation.
Principles of drug treatment
To get rid of atherosclerotic plaques, use of drug and non-drug methods. The basis of therapy is the leveling of provoking factors that aggravate the course of the disease. In the conservative treatment of drugs used, lowering the concentration of low-density lipoprotein; means of promoting expansion of blood vessels; medications to improve the exchange processes.
Principles of treatment of atherosclerosis in diabetes: eliminate risk factors - smoking, overweight, unhealthy diet, high sugar and pressure indicators. Since atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, complex treatment is required.
To reduce the content of harmful cholesterol, reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, medications from the statins and fibrates groups, nicotinic acid, derivatives of bile acids are prescribed. The doctor may recommend statins:
- Simvastatin. Tablets reduce the amount of LDL. The dose ranges from 5 to 10 mg.
- Lovastatin inhibits the production of cholesterol in the body, reduces LDL. Dose of 20-40 mg.
To reduce the risk of blood clots, drugs are needed to improve blood circulation, dilating blood vessels. Assign pentoxifylline 100-200 mg 3 times a day; Actovegin is injected intravenously with 250-500 ml of solution every day for 2 weeks; Clopidogrel 75 mg per day.
When atherosclerosis is combined with diabetes mellitus, diabetics must be prescribed medications that normalize glucose in the body. The use of these medicines is no less important than the use of lipid-lowering drugs.
It is the concentration of sugar that determines the rate of development of complications in atherosclerosis.
Folk remedies for atherosclerotic plaques
Alternative medicine is rich in recipes that help fight atherosclerotic plaques. Garlic is a natural remedy for atherosclerosis. The easiest way to use it is raw food. It is enough to eat 2-3 cloves every day. On the basis of garlic, there are many recipes.
The “medicine” with garlic and honey is prepared as follows: chop 250 g of garlic, add to it 350 ml of liquid honey. If the sweet product is candied, you can melt it in a water bath. After insisting components in a cool room for a week. Take three times a day, the dosage is a teaspoon. Reception is carried out 30 minutes before meals.
At home, you can make tincture with lemon. According to reviews, a home remedy normalizes sugar in diabetes, cleans blood vessels from fat deposits, improves health, levels the clinic of atherosclerosis. Recipe:
- Peel three heads of garlic, scroll through a meat grinder;
- Wash 3 lemons. Scroll in a meat grinder with the peel;
- Mix components, pour hot water in a volume of 1500 ml;
- Insist the remedy for 24 hours;
- Ready "medicine" is stored in the refrigerator.
Take the tincture three times a day. Dosage for one application - a tablespoon. Drink half an hour before meals. The duration of the therapeutic course of 10 days, after a week break, begin anew. A total of 3-6 diabetes courses will be needed.
Broth with parsley: chop a large bunch of parsley, pour 300 ml of hot water, to insist 2 hours. Drink 50 ml 4 times a day. Duration of therapy - a month, after 10 days break, you can repeat.
Vascular atherosclerosis is an insidious disease, since there are no clinical manifestations in the early stages, which does not allow for the timely diagnosis of the disease. As for the prognosis in diabetes, it is favorable only if the patient strictly follows the doctor’s recommendations, maintains glucose and pressure at an acceptable level, eats properly, plays sports and complies with other measures preventing complications.
About cholesterol plaques described in the video in this article.