Diabetes

Examination of diabetes by pathological anatomy

Diabetes, like any other serious disease, greatly affects the human body.

With the development of diabetes mellitus, not only hormonal changes are observed, but also pathological processes affecting various internal organs and groups of organs.

The study of the anatomical features of the organism of patients with diabetes mellitus is the responsibility of the section of medicine called pathological anatomy. What is the difference with accompanying diabetes mellitus pathology?

Pathological anatomy: what is it?

The internal structure of a person, as well as the characteristics of the structure and development of his organs, are studied by human morphology.

Organ changes that are uncharacteristic for a healthy person and that result from the development of a disease are the subject of a study of pathological anatomy.

The peculiarities of the influence of one or another pathology on a person are the most important data that help to develop and implement the correct treatment. It is especially important to understand the mechanism of the impact of the disease in order to understand the causes of a disease.

The correctness of the provision of symptomatic care, which in certain cases still remains the only means of saving the patient’s life, is also largely dependent on the knowledge gained through patanatomy. Therefore, the opening and examination of bodies, as well as a comprehensive study of surgical material are one of the main ways of development of medicine.

Pathology - an important method of teaching new medical personnel.

Panatomy of diabetes mellitus: general characteristics

The anatomy of diabetic patients is studied by a section of medicine called the pathology of the endocrine system.

Changes in the pancreas are the cause and at the same time the morphological sign of the disease, but in some cases they can not be traced.

The most significant morphological symptom of diabetes is the presence of glucose deposits in the tissues, especially in the epithelium of the kidney tubules. These consequences of raising the level of sugar are perfectly detected by the Best method. The second sign that characterizes the patho-anatomical picture in diabetes is angiopathy of the vessels.

At the same time, not macro-lesions causing cardiosclerosis and heart attack are more characteristic, but microangiopathy, when degenerative processes occur in the capillaries. In this case, the occurrence of such pathologies as neuropathy, damage to the capillaries of the kidneys and blood vessels of the eye retina is possible.

Apparent violation of morphology indicates a long course of the disease.

With prolonged and intensive development of diabetes, a violation of the morphology of the internal organs, especially the pancreas, is detected. Changes of dystrophic or atrophic nature can also be detected in other glands and organs, including those related to the central nervous system.

Classification

The disease is usually divided into 4 different forms, depending on the expected origin of the disease.

Etiological forms of diabetes:

  • first type;
  • second type;
  • gestational;
  • latent.

Let us examine the characteristics of each of the forms of this endocrine disease. For the first type, the absolute destruction of specific gland cells capable of producing insulin is characteristic.

As a result, the production of this vital hormone is completely stopped, and a person is not able to transport glucose directly into the cells of the body. The second type is characterized by the development of insulin insensitivity in the patient.

Thus, it is necessary to have a normal or even increased amount of this hormone in the blood - synthesized by the pancreas or even coming from outside with injections. This pathology of insulin receptors usually develops on the background of obesity.

The gestational form is known as pregnant diabetes. It is characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, which occurred during pregnancy, and significant hyperglycemia.

After birth, the state of the body is usually normalized without influence from the outside.

Latent diabetes is essentially a pre-diabetic condition of the body. It is characterized by a very slow development of insulin resistance and for quite a long time without noticeable symptoms. This condition, which many doctors consider to be the stage of the disease, can be determined only with the help of several glucose tests.

If this indicator of blood reaches 120 mg, and the result is held firmly - there is a reason to talk about prediabetes. They also speak about the manifestation of the disease. Manifestation is the first clinical manifestation of diabetes.

The manifestation indicates a significant development of the disease.

Do not confuse this condition and the onset of the disease, because a significant decrease in the resistance of insulin receptors for quite a long time can occur without any symptoms.

Morphological signs and manifestations of pathology

With the development of the disease, there is a gradual accumulation of amyloid in the pancreas.. In the case of advanced diabetes, there is even a complete replacement of the amyloid formations of the islets of Langerhans.

In some cases, there is fibrosis of the pancreas, when insulin bumps are replaced by non-functional connective tissue.

Stages of development of atherosclerosis

The capillary pathologies described above lead, over time, to more serious disturbances in the functionality of the circulatory system. So, pronounced atherosclerosis is one of the consequences of the development of the disease.

Not being a specific ailment, it begins earlier in diabetics and progresses much faster, affecting mainly large blood vessels.

Gangrenous manifestations in diabetics occur 100 times more often than in patients with a normally functioning pancreas.

Diabetic complications

In addition to problems with the kidneys and blood vessels, other complications of this disease develop - acute, late, and chronic.

Acute is the accumulation in the blood of metabolic products and ketone bodies, leading to disruption of the organs - ketoacidosis.

An increase in the content of glucose and sodium in the blood leads to hyperosmolar coma developing on the background of dehydration. Another deadly complication is the accumulation of lactic acid in violation of the kidneys and liver, leading to respiratory failure and a significant reduction in pressure.

Late negative effects include polyneuropathy and diabetic foot. The first is a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the limbs due to atrophy of the nerves. This complication increases the risk of self-inflicting severe injuries.

Diabetic foot is one of the most common complications of diabetes.

Diabetic foot - a consequence of problems with the blood supply to the lower extremities. As a result, ulcers, boils, dead skin areas appear.

Pancreatic morphology in diabetics

With the development of diabetes mellitus, morphological pathologies of the pancreas are aggravated.

In certain cases, these changes occur at the macroscopic level.

The gland is reduced in size, differs pathologically overgrown connective tissue.

For type 2 diabetes, a frequent occurrence is a decrease in the number of cells in the "islets of Langerhans". In the first type, a decrease in the number of the islands themselves is observed.

In about 14% of cases, the morphology of the organ does not change, both at the micro and macro levels. But at the same time, pathology of blood vessels, brain (first of all - the pituitary gland), kidneys and thyroid gland are revealed.

Related videos

About the causes of and the treatment of diabetes in the video:

In most cases, such a dangerous pathology of the pancreas leaves a noticeable morphological mark on this organ, the study of which helps to better understand the nature of the disease and its treatment methods.

Watch the video: Diabetes. Clinical Presentation (November 2019).

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