Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a pathology of the endocrine apparatus, in which there is a decreased sensitivity of cells and tissues of the body to insulin (the hormone of the islets of Langerhans-Sobolev pancreas) with its sufficient synthesis. The result is a high level of sugar in the blood and a violation of all types of metabolism.
To effectively restrain the manifestation of the disease, you need to follow the rules of diet therapy (clinical nutrition). The main goal is to keep the glucose level no higher than 5.6 mmol / l and the values of glycated hemoglobin within 6-6.5%, to reduce body weight, to reduce the load on insulin-secreting pancreatic cells. What can you eat with type 2 diabetes and an exemplary menu is discussed below.
As a rule, patients are advised to stick to table No. 9, however, the attending specialist can make an individual diet correction based on the state of compensation of endocrine pathology, the patient’s body weight, the characteristics of the body, and the presence of complications.
The basic principles of nutrition are as follows:
- the ratio of "building" material - b / w / s - 60:25:15;
- daily calorie counts the attending physician or nutritionist;
- sugar is excluded from the diet, you can use sugar substitutes (sorbitol, fructose, xylitol, stevia extract, maple syrup);
- a sufficient amount of vitamins and microelements must be supplied, since they are massively derived from polyuria;
- indicators of animal fat intake are reduced by half;
- reduce fluid intake to 1.5 liters, salt to 6 g;
- frequent split meals (having snacks between main meals).
To a question about what you can eat on a diet with type 2 diabetes, the nutritionist will answer that they focus on vegetables, fruits, dairy and meat products. It is not necessary to completely exclude carbohydrates from the diet, since they perform a number of important functions (construction, energy, reserve, regulation). It is simply necessary to limit the fast-digesting monosaccharides and give preference to polysaccharides (substances that have a large amount of fiber in the composition and slowly increase blood glucose).
Bakery and flour products
Permitted products are those in the manufacture of which wheat flour of the highest and first grade "did not participate". Its caloric value is 334 kcal, and the indicators of GI (glycemic index) are 95, which automatically takes the dish to the section of prohibited foods for diabetes.
Wholemeal Bread - the basis of diet therapy in diabetes
For making bread it is recommended to use:
- rye flour;
- wheat flour of the second grade;
- buckwheat flour (in combination with any of the above).
Permitted products are unsweetened crackers, breads, biscuits, lean pastries. The group of pastry baking includes those products that do not use eggs, margarine, fatty additives.
The simplest dough from which you can make pies, muffins, rolls for diabetics is prepared as follows. It is necessary to dilute 30 g of yeast in warm water. Combine with 1 kg of rye flour, 1.5 tbsp. water, a pinch of salt and 2 tbsp. vegetable fat. After the dough "fits" in a warm place, it can be used for baking.
In diabetes mellitus type 2, these products are considered the most “running” because they have a low calorie content and low GI rates (with the exception of a few). All green vegetables (zucchini, zucchini, cabbage, lettuce, cucumbers) can be used in boiled, stewed form, for preparing first courses and side dishes.
Vegetables - representatives with the lowest GI
Pumpkin, tomatoes, onions, peppers are also desired foods. They include a significant amount of antioxidants that bind free radicals, vitamins, pectins, flavonoids. For example, tomatoes contain a significant amount of a lycopene substance that has an antitumor effect. Onions are able to strengthen the body's defenses, positively influence the work of the heart and blood vessels, removing excess cholesterol from the body.
Cabbage can be consumed not only in stew, but also in fermented form. Its main advantage is the decrease in blood glucose.
However, there are vegetables, the use of which is necessary to limit (no need to refuse):
Fruits and berries
These are useful products, but it is not recommended to use them in kilograms. Safe are:
- savory varieties of apples and pears;
- sea buckthorn;
- a pineapple.
Berries and fruits are products that positively affect the body of a diabetic
Experts advise to eat no more than 200 g at a time. The composition of fruits and berries include a significant amount of essential for the body acids, pectins, fiber, ascorbic acid. All these substances are useful for diabetics because they are able to protect against the development of chronic complications of the underlying disease and slow their progression.
In addition, berries and fruits normalize the work of the intestinal tract, restore and strengthen the defenses, elevate mood, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Meat and fish
Preference is given to low-fat varieties, both meat and fish. The amount of meat in the diet is subject to strict dosage (not more than 150 g per day). This will prevent the undesirable development of complications that may arise against the background of endocrine pathology.
If we talk about what you can eat from sausages, here preference is given to dietary and boiled varieties. Smoked products in this case are not recommended. By-products are allowed, but in limited quantities.
Fish can be consumed:
- crucian carp.
Meat and fish - sources of beneficial vitamins and minerals
Important! Fish must be baked, boiled, stewed. In salted and fried form it is better to limit or exclude it altogether.
Eggs and dairy products
Eggs are considered a source of vitamins (A, E, C, D) and unsaturated fatty acids. In case of diabetes mellitus type 2, no more than 2 pieces per day are allowed, it is desirable to eat only proteins. The quail eggs, though small in size, are superior in their beneficial properties to the chicken product. They do not have cholesterol, which is especially good for sick people, and can be used raw.
Milk is a permitted product containing a significant amount of magnesium, phosphate, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and other macro and micronutrients. Up to 400 ml of medium-fat milk is recommended per day. Fresh milk used in the diet for type 2 diabetes is not recommended, because it can provoke a jump in blood sugar.
Kefir, yogurt and cottage cheese should be used rationally, controlling the indicators of carbohydrates. Preference is given to low-fat varieties.
The table below shows which cereals are considered safe for non-insulin-dependent diabetics and their properties.
|Name cereals||GI indicators||Properties|
|Buckwheat||55||A beneficial effect on blood counts, contains a significant amount of fiber and iron|
|Corn||70||High-calorie product, but in its composition mainly polysaccharides. Beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, improves cell sensitivity to insulin, supports the work of the visual analyzer|
|Millet||71||Prevents the development of pathology of the heart and blood vessels, removes toxins and excess cholesterol from the body, normalizes blood pressure|
|Barley||22||Reduces blood sugar, reduces the load on the pancreas, restores the processes of spread of excitement along the nerve fibers|
|Barley||50||Displays excess cholesterol, strengthens the body's defenses, normalizes the digestive tract|
|Wheat||45||Helps reduce blood glucose, stimulates the digestive tract, improves the nervous system|
|Pic||50-70||Brown rice is preferred because of lower GI values. It has a positive effect on the work of the nervous system; it contains essential amino acids.|
|Oatmeal||40||It has a significant amount of antioxidants in the composition, normalizes the liver, reduces cholesterol levels in the blood.|
Important! White rice should be limited in the diet, and from semolina porridge and completely abandoned because of their high GI numbers.
As for juices, you should give preference to home-made drinks. Store juices have a large amount of preservatives and sugar in the composition. It shows the use of fresh drinks from the following products:
Regular use of mineral water helps to normalize the digestive tract. With type 2 diabetes, you can drink water without gas. It can be a dining room, dining-therapeutic or therapeutic mineral.
Mineral still water - a drink that positively affects the work of the intestinal tract
Tea, coffee with milk, herbal teas are acceptable drinks if they contain no sugar. As for alcohol, its use is unacceptable, since in the insulin-independent form, glucose jumps in the blood are unpredictable, and alcoholic beverages can cause the development of delayed hypoglycemia and accelerate the occurrence of complications of the underlying disease.
Menu for the day
Breakfast: cottage cheese with savory apples, tea with milk.
Snack: baked apple or orange.
Lunch: borscht on vegetable broth, fish casserole, apple-cabbage salad, bread, rosehip decoction.
Snack: carrot salad with prunes.
Dinner: buckwheat with mushrooms, a slice of bread, a glass of blueberry juice.
Snack: a glass of kefir.
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that has a terrible name, however, compliance with the recommendations of specialists and diet therapy can maintain the quality of life of the patient at a high level. What foods to include in the diet - the individual choice of each patient. The attending physician and nutritionist will help to correct the menu, to choose those dishes that can provide the body with the necessary organic substances, vitamins, trace elements.