Diabetes mellitus provokes not only problems with blood glucose levels, overweight, the disease becomes the cause of the development of atherosclerosis of blood vessels. Atherosclerosis of the carotid artery becomes the most dangerous disease in violation of carbohydrate metabolism.
When the disease worsens, the patient loses his ability to work, the probability of death increases. The plaque in the carotid artery seriously impairs blood circulation in the brain, deprives it of normal nutrition, adequate functioning.
The composition of the plaque is a strong accumulation of cholesterol, connective tissue and other fatty fractions. When the size of the neoplasm becomes too large, thrombosis of the carotid artery is observed, diabetic is threatened with a stroke. The cholesterol plaque in the carotid artery indicates that the neoplasm is present in the other vessels, it is necessary to treat as soon as possible.
How is plaque formed
The human neck has two sleepy and two vertebral arteries. By means of the arteries of the cervical spine, blood flows to the brain and face, blood flow is quite intense, any deviations from the norm become a cause of deterioration of health.
A microscopic rupture on the surface of the carotid artery, slowing down of blood flow in a certain part of the artery, and the presence of growths are prerequisites for the appearance of plaque. Causes should be sought in the regular use of heavy, high-calorie foods. As a result, small lumps of cholesterol accumulate in the arteries, which can migrate through the vessels and attach to the weakest points.
As soon as the fat ball is attached to the vessel walls, an active growth of connective tissue is noted. Doctors call this process liposclerosis. After some time, the size of the growth increases, is firmly fixed on the walls of the artery.
Further, the neoplasm continues to increase, increasing the likelihood of sad consequences. The danger also lies in the fact that:
- diabetic atherosclerotic plaque may come off;
- at rupture, the vessel partially or completely closes;
- instant death occurs.
When the plaque remains in place, calcium salts accumulate in its shell, making it hard. Thus, the final stage of neoplasm formation begins - atherocalcinosis. Even stable plaque develops further, it lasts for a couple of years.
When a tumor contains many lipids, it is considered unstable, the risk of rupture increases.
In diabetics, heterogeneous atherosclerotic plaques are also detected, the pathological condition is complicated by ulceration, numerous hemorrhages on their surface.
Symptoms, diagnostic measures
The symptoms of cholesterol plaque do not make themselves known for a long time, which is a serious danger for diabetic. The obvious signs of the disease depend on the location, size of the deposit, and the patient’s state of health.
Usually, a person notices unusual fatigue after mild exercise, moderate pain. Since many diabetics are obese, they do not notice the symptoms of the pathological condition, blaming it on the discomfort of extra pounds.
In severe cases, occasional ischemic attacks occur, in which the patient has speech confusion, numbness of the upper or lower extremities, deterioration in the quality of vision (more often than one eye), muscular weakness. Diabetic suffers from constant fatigue, loss of strength even without physical exertion. In the beginning, the attacks are short, then last up to a day.
Before starting treatment, the doctor:
- interviews the patient;
- establishes symptoms;
- determines predisposing factors.
Risk factors include frequent stressful situations, physical inactivity, perennial smoking, past infections, and over 35 years of age.
Be sure the doctor prescribes auscultation of the carotid arteries, it is important for the detection of vortex flows.
After pass instrumental diagnostic methods: ultrasound, MRI, CT, blood pressure measurement.
Conservative treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis helps reduce the size of a tumor without surgery. Drugs prescribed by cardiologists provide an opportunity to reduce the concentration of fats in blood vessels. Under the condition of normalization of low-density cholesterol, it is possible to fix the size of the plaque, stop further growth.
Some medicines are aimed at lowering blood pressure and thinning blood. Such funds will be a measure to prevent the formation of new plaques, improve the quality of life. Many diabetics like these tablets are prescribed simply to prevent health problems.
Against the background of viscous blood, weakened and damaged vessels become extremely susceptible to compaction, an increase in the number of platelets. Medicines should become not just a treatment, but part of the patient's lifestyle.
The treatment will not give results, it will not work to get rid of the tumor, if the risk factors are not eliminated, it is important:
- revise the diet;
- diet provides a lot of fiber;
- to engage in physical culture;
- fully relax.
For the entire period of therapy, it is necessary to keep your body under control, while improving well-being it is forbidden to stop taking the drugs. If the considered councils are observed, the diabetic is not in danger of serious and dangerous consequences, the risk of relapse is zero.
As for folk treatment methods, they are absolutely useless in a hundred percent of cases.
Surgical plaque removal
The removal of cholesterol plaques from the carotid arteries is carried out by various methods, the doctor selects a method of treatment on an individual basis. A neoplasm can be removed by balloon angioplasty followed by stenting or using endarterectomy.
In balloon angioplasty, local anesthesia is used, endarterectomy is performed exclusively under general anesthesia. In a number of cases, laser removal of plaques, the procedure of thrombolysis is practiced.
The indications for the operation becomes the large size of the plaque. Surgical elimination is justified if the neoplasm occupies more than 70% of the artery lumen. Such deposits are usually formed for a long time, the diabetic throughout this period felt discomfort and characteristic symptoms, but did nothing.
Other obvious indicators of the need for intervention:
- lack of positive dynamics after the use of medicines;
- plaque instability;
- shell irregularities.
You can not hesitate with the operation when there is a specific symptom of microinfarction, stroke. The price of delay is the life of a sick person.
There are also contraindications to the procedure, as shown by reviews of doctors, not all diabetics are suited for the surgical treatment of atherosclerotic deposits, especially with decompensated diabetes. It is impossible to do the operation when the blood pressure level is too high. The cardiologist sets the task to equalize the pressure, the inability to do so postpones the operation.
Incredible complexity is also a violation of the heart rhythm, the intervention can not be carried out with a protracted inflammatory process. The reason is simple - the body may inadequately respond to the introduction of anesthesia. Allergy to some medications, without which intervention is impossible, carries the danger.
Balloon angioplasty is performed when, for a number of reasons, endarterectomy is not possible. In addition, the procedure is recommended in the presence of diseases of the blood vessels, which may interfere with the use of endovascular instruments.
Absolute contraindication becomes total occlusion of blood vessels, a complicating factor recognized by their loop-like, tortuosity. When there is a cerebral hemorrhage in the history of the disease, the operation is postponed for a couple of months. You can not practice surgical treatments for Alzheimer's disease, conducting thrombolysis.
An expert in the video in this article will tell you about atherosclerosis.